Thursday, April 30, 2009

Hog Waste = Toxic Pollution (Local and Global)

This article was published in rolling stone in December 2006.

A very interesting read on the nature of pollution from pig farms in the United States, the level of contamination, and possible damages to the environment.

A lot of pig shit is one thing; a lot of highly toxic pig shit is another. The excrement of Smithfield hogs is hardly even pig shit: On a continuum of pollutants, it is probably closer to radioactive waste than to organic manure. The reason it is so toxic is Smithfield's efficiency. The company produces 6 billion pounds of packaged pork each year. That's a remarkable achievement, a prolificacy unimagined only two decades ago, and the only way to do it is to raise pigs in astonishing, unprecedented concentrations.

Industrial pig waste also contains a host of other toxic substances: ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, cyanide, phosphorous, nitrates and heavy metals. In addition, the waste nurses more than 100 microbial pathogens that can cause illness in humans, including salmonella, cryptosporidium, streptocolli and girardia.

Average Vehicular Emission Factors for Air Pollution

Developing an emission inventory is a challenging exercise and the emission factors play the vital role in doing so. “Emission Factors”, by definition, represent the release of a pollutant due to combustion of fuel, with common units of gm/veh-km, under a variety of conditions, e.g., loaded and unloaded; idling; cold starts; and cruising.

Introduction to VAPIS

An emission factor is typically established based on testing a number of vehicles (with varying age and mix) under conditions listed above, to arrive at an average number. Table below presents an average set of emission factors for major vehicular categories for three fuel types (2Ws = two wheelers, 3Ws = three wheelers, LDV = light duty commercial vehicles, HDT = heavy duty trucks).

This are average emission factors based on authors assumptions; using material from variety of sources.

(click on the image to enlarge numbers)
(for a calculator to develop a vehicular emissions inventory see VAPIS @ SIM-air)
(VAPIS = Vehicular Air Pollution Information System)

Access to local fleet specific emissions factors for inventory development is ideal.

Not all the cities in the developing world are equipped with testing facilities, which cost millions of dollars for establishment, operation, and maintenance. To view existing emission factor databases visit the VAPIS page.

A frequently asked question is the applicability of the borrowed or average emission factors. Emissions factors not only depend on the engine type, which could be common for many countries, but also local fuel quality, maintenance programs, road conditions, driving cycles, and driver’s behavior. This only increases the uncertainty of these factors established in a laboratory setting, where reality is assumed and simulated.

Where data is not available, use the average numbers comparing results from tests done vs. the vehicular technology in use, make appropriate corrections using the examples listed above (add deterioration factors, if necessary).

Where available, a considerable number of tests are being performed to establish these emission factors and where not available, cities are expected to make a close fit based on the mix of the vehicles and technology in use and and when the local factors are established, re-check the analysis.

Monday, April 27, 2009

New BRT Guide for Decision Makers & India

The US Federal Transit Authority issued a new handbook on the Characteristics of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) for the Decision Making. This issue comes with examples and analysis on BRT applications from around the world and detailed guidelines for designing a BRT.

BRT is a growing trend.

Personally, not a fan of BRT, but I am a fan of buses, but not opposed to the idea of a functional BRT, when designed and implemented right.

The cities of Bogota and Curitiba are revered examples and while the Latin American cities have been the pioneers at it, the remaining list of cities around the world are catching up fast.

In India, for a number of cities, the push for integrated urban transport management under the JNNURM funds, and there is a growing interest in BRT, due to its appeal to the local politicians, but it is important to better understand the system for effective and speedy implementation, especially to avoid the failures of Delhi, India (one report claims, it is as good as scrapped).

In Delhi, after two years of planning and construction, only a section of 5 k
m road was opened for piloting and immediately dubbed as the “corridor of chaos” (stirring a public furor).

In Pune, the pilot BRT program failed in 2007 and for all practical purposes has been discontinued.

In Delhi, despite the teething problems in the initial two months, negative press releases primarily focusing on the operational and design issues, the BRT system received good approval
rating from the commuters in the past few months, primarily due to the improvement in the buses, convenience for the bus commuters, and the bus information systems.

However, the 5 km pilot is only a fraction of the proposed 120 km (picture to the right), which the local government body is expected to implement before the Commonwealth Games in 2010.

Still, a two year effort for 5 km of pilot, does NOT support the maths - money n
or time.

In some cases, the BRT concept is considered a "euphemism" for road widening projects. For example, we can already see this happening at one junction in Delhi, "Chirag Delhi". The lane originally dedicated for cycling and walking, is now converted to a left only lane for cars. For the rest of the cycle lanes on the BRT project, motor cycles are dominating space originally intended for non-motorized transport. The photo is taken from a 3 wheeler on the pedestrian lane.

While the BRT is effective in improving the traffic conditions and creating opportunities to shift people from personal to public transport, one should consider if by just increasing the bus fleet and improving the inspection and maintenance program might create the same opportunities. This distinction and understanding of the local needs is necessary and might be cost effective, if an informed decision is made by the stakeholders.

When it comes to buses, the story is summarized in Times of India, February 8th, 2009, titled, "BRTS dream may go bust".

Tata and Ashok Leyland, together produce nearly 90 per cent of standard buses in the country but can barely deliver about 100 buses a month till they ramp up production.

Environment Pollution Control Authority (EPCA) has questioned if industry can meet this demand. Under normal market conditions, bus industry is geared to sell about 30,000 buses every year for entire country. And only a few hundred low-floor urban buses.

If each of the 3-5 million plus cities gear up to make most of the urban transport revival package offered by JNNURM and hope to add at least 2,000 buses each every year then it would mean a current requirement of 70,000 buses.

Also now, as per new JNNURM norms, bus industry will have to be prepared to produce not only standard buses but also low-floor buses which at 20 per cent come to a unprecedented 14,000 buses.

Bus industry should make the most of these funds and opportunity.. not to mention 70,000 reasons.. but too SLOW in ramping up?

To Save the Earth, Start with Data (Wired)

"To save the Earth, start with Data", one sentence says it all. See the article published in the Wired Magazine, on April 22nd, 2009.

You can’t cast a stone without hitting a list of tips to save the planet, but few of them come with any hard data on how hand-washing your dishes will save polar bears.

Metaphorical, but it hits the bulls eye. Coming back to the problem of air pollution in the growing number of cities, the main constraint to make an informed decision is the data - all the way from its availability to its reliability, and especially in the developing countries.

Modern information technology advances (the likes of the Google Earth with maps of energy use, population, emissions, and pollution), and their increasing presence, offers a tremendous opportunity to establish the necessary data networks, to help city managers, regulators, academia, and citizen groups to develop a coordinated approach for effective pollution management for the decision makers and an informed public awareness scheme.

In line with the data needs, the UrbanEmissions.Info, has four objectives: (1) Promote the sharing of knowledge base on air pollution analysis (2) analysis based on science (3) advocacy and awareness raising on air quality management and (4) partnership building among local, national, and international stakeholders.

See SIM-03-2008 working paper, "Informed Decision Support for AQM in the Developing Countries".

Sunday, April 26, 2009

Clean Air News - April 26th, 2009

News Every Sunday
See the last issue on April 19, 2009

Christian Science Monitor, April 16th, 2009
Clean energy, overpopulation, black carbon, rising sea level, and other environmental news.

Mass Live, April 19th, 2009
Wind begins to shift on reducing pollution.

Science Daily, April 19th, 2009
Clouds: Lighter Than Air But Laden With Lead.

Reuters, April 20th, 2009
New solar farm adds hot water to cheap electricity (Israel).

Reuters, April 19th, 2009
Stay slim to save the planet.

Guardian, April 20th, 2009
Carbon emissions fueled by high rates of obesity.

Guardian, April 20th,2009
China considers setting targets for carbon emissions.

MSN, April 20th, 2009
The Most Polluted Places in America.

DoT, South Africa, April, 2009
Non-motorised transport and intermediate means of transport - Low -cost sustainable transport options.

Euro Activ, April 20th, 2009
Passenger Transport in Urban Areas of EU.

Economic Times, India, April 20th, 2009
A Bus to Nowhere.

Oil and Gas Journal, April 20th, 2009
EPA issues proposed endangerment finding on GHGs.

Climate Wire, April 15th, 2009
Spam adds heavy load to global CO2 footprint.

The New Vision (Uganda), April 20th, 2009
Congestion fee can alleviate traffic jams in Kampala.

New York Times, April 21st, 2009
Use Energy, Get Rich and Save the Planet.

Science Daily, April 22nd, 2009
Increasing Antarctic Sea Ice Extent Linked To Ozone Hole.

Guardian, April 21st, 2009
Electric cars 'not enough to meet transport emissions targets'.

Economic Times, India, April 21st, 2009
Nano likely to take congestion to tier II and III towns.

Energy Digital, April 20th, 2009
IEA calls on cleaner coal production in China.

US News, April 22nd, 2009
Lisa Jackson Says She Is Bringing New Energy to the EPA.

Washington Post, April 23rd, 2009
Dust Storms Escalate, Prompting Environmental Fears.

Taiwan News, April 23rd, 2009
China reports drop in acid rain pollutant.

National Post, April 23rd, 2009
Smog helps in fight against global warming.

France 24, April 23rd, 2009
Pollution in Chinese cities 'extremely severe'.

Oil and Gas Journal, April 23rd, 2009
NOAA: CO2, methane concentrations grew in 2008.

New York Times, April 23rd, 2009
Shell Settles Air Pollution Accusations.

The Nation (Pakistan), April 24th, 2009
Pollution kills 55,000 in country every year.

Economic Times (India), April 24th, 2009
Nano mania grips Corporate India.

NPR, April 22nd, 2009
Smog Deaths In 1948 Led To Clean Air Laws.

Scientific American, April 23rd, 2009
Could Cleaning Up Air Pollution Actually Speed Up Global Warming?

Delaware Online, April 23rd, 2009
Ozone problem takes the spotlight.

China Daily, April 23rd, 2009
Chinese Cities set to jointly fight air pollution.

Telegraph (UK), April 23rd, 2009
Climate change could speed up as pollution decreases.

The Standard, April 23rd, 2009
Crisis-hit factory closures in China flush out Pearl River Delta pollutants.

Charleston Daily, April 24th, 2009
Cement industry: EPA pollution plan not achievable.

Science Daily, April 23rd, 2009
Fire Influences Global Warming More Than Previously Thought.

Science Daily, April 23rd, 2009
Kyoto Treaty Is ‘Failing The World’s Poor’.

Science Daily, April 23rd, 2009
Students Least Informed About Environmental Science Are Most Optimistic.

Science Daily, April 23rd, 2009
Plants Absorb More Carbon Dioxide Under Polluted Hazy Skies.

Reuters, April 24th, 2009
China to meet 2010 pollution targets.

AlterNet, April 23rd, 2009
Will California Say No to Ethanol?

New York Times, April 23rd, 2009
Industry Ignored Its Scientists on Climate.

Wall Street Journal, April 24th, 2009
Our Cap and Trade NOx the SOx Off.

Jakarta Post, April 25th, 2009
Paratransit network still stuck at slow lane.

Miami Herald, April 23rd, 2009
California approves emissions reductions.

Guardian, April 24th, 2009
Tiny steps in a marathon - UK Energy plan for low-carbon society.

Science Daily, April 26th, 2009
Greenhouse Gases Continue To Climb Despite Economic Slump.

Telegraph, April 25th, 2009
Speed limits could cause an increase in deaths caused by traffic pollution (UK).

Thursday, April 23, 2009

Bound to Burn (City Journal) & More to Come

A thought provoking article in the City Journal, "Bound to Burn".

Humanity will keep spewing carbon into the atmosphere, but good policy can help sink it back into the earth.

If we’re truly worried about carbon, we must instead approach it as if the emissions originated in an annual eruption of Mount Krakatoa. Don’t try to persuade the volcano to sign a treaty promising to stop. Focus instead on what might be done to protect and promote the planet’s carbon sinks—the systems that suck carbon back out of the air and bury it. Green plants currently pump 15 to 20 times as much carbon out of the atmosphere as humanity releases into it—that’s the pump that put all that carbon underground in the first place, millions of years ago.

Monday, April 20, 2009

Obesity = 5 Percent Extra GHG Emissions

Carbon Emissions Fuelled by High Rates of Obesity.
Guardian, April 20th, 2009

According to the article, "The greenhouse gas emissions from food production and car travel for the fatter billion people were estimated at between 0.4bn and 1bn extra tonnes a year. That is a significant amount in comparison with the world's total emissions of 27bn tonnes in 2004."

The study was conducted by
Phil Edwards @ London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
and published in International Journal of Epidemiology.

And less energy consumed translates directly to less air pollution. For example, less car mileage or less fuel consumed = less pollutants emitted.

Also see, "Consumption, Not Population is our Main Environmental Threat", on AlterNet, April 14th, 2009.

Checkout "Globesity - Planet Out of Control?" by EarthScan Publishers.

Economics of Oil Price and Fuel Sources (Financial Times)

Oil Price at Which Fuel Sources Become Economically Viable.
Financial Times, December 21, 2008

An interesting and informative chart on the economic viability of the current and alternative fuels. Click on the image to enlarge view and read the original article.

It is interesting to note that when the oil price reached $140 in 2008, it made sense to go after the biofuels, but since the drop back to the "normal", the thinking is back to focus on what is essential (food).
Top Scientists Warn Against Rush on Biofuels (Guardian)

See "Fields of Fuels?" for more information on why Biofuels are not enough to meet the demand nor the way forward (at least at the commercial level). The rural sector applications look to make some progress.

The clearing of rain forests in Brazil, Indonesia, and Malaysia (Fire & Haze - Cost of Catastrophes, Global Palm Oil Demand Fueling Reforestation by WWI, April, 2009), is rampant and the cost of biofuel boom is destroying the forests.

Also see Biofuels could fuel rainforest destruction.

A paper by Dr. Mark Jacobson ranks Wind and Geothermal energy higher than the CCS or other "clean" technologies.

Sunday, April 19, 2009

Clean Air News - April 19th, 2009

On April 19th, 2009 (News Every Sunday)
See the last issue on April 12, 2009

BBC, April 12th, 2009
City Air Pollution Shorten's Life.

The Daily Green, April 12th, 2009
Old Dirty Coal Power Plants and the Unfinished Business Of the Clean Air Act.

Opposing Views, April 13th, 2009
15 Large Ships May Pollute Just as Much as 760 Million Cars.

Gulf News, April 11th, 2009
Air pollution a major public health issue in UAE.

The Courier, April 12th, 2009
Clean Boating = Green Boating.

Yale 360, April 13th, 2009
Consumption Dwarfs Population As Main Environmental Threat.

EurActiv, April 7th, 2009
WWF's Singer: EU 'cheating' the world on climate change.

Wichita Eagle, April 14th, 2009
Ozone levels worry Wichita city officials.

WFPL News, April 13th, 2009
New EPA Study Finds Environmental Education Improves Air Quality.

Economist, April 13th, 2009
How to ensure the environment is properly accounted for.

Science Daily, April 14th, 2009
Biofuels Could Hasten Climate Change.

IPS, April 15th, 2009
Smog adds to Kabul's Environmental Hazards.

New York Times, Paril 16th, 2009
Third-World Stove Soot is Target in the Climate Fight.

Vietnam Net, April 16th, 2009
Tougher standards needed to control growing air pollution in HCM City.

TIMES, April 12th, 2009
Ships’ fumes kill thousands every year, most in UK.

NPR, April 17th, 2009
US EPA Moves Toward Regulating Greenhouse Gases.

TIMES, April 16th, 2009
Pollution priority in Pennsylvania.

Bury Times, April 16th, 2009
Hi-tech paint to combat air pollution.

Science Daily, April 16th, 2009
Urban Centers With Most Polluted Air: Barcelona And Madrid.

Science Daily, April 16th, 2009
NASA Experiment Stirs Up Hope For Forecasting Deadliest Cyclones.

Science Daily, April 17th, 2009
Much Better Way To Protect Streams From Construction Runoff Is Also Low Cost.

Science Daily, April 18th, 2009
US EPA says, Greenhouse Gases Pose Threat To Public Health.

Reuters, April 17th, 2009
EU greenhouse emissions fall - because it's warmer.

NPR, April 18th, 2009
The Greenhouse Effect and Health.

CNN, April 17th, 2009
Greenhouse Gases Pose Health Hazard.

Guardian, April 17th, 2009
Obama administration breaks with the years of 'climate change denial'.

Guardian, April 18th, 2009
Ed Miliband plans clean coal scheme worth millions.

BBC, April 14th, 2009
Time to act on carbon markets.

Discover Magazine, April, 2009
Eyes in the Sky Show That Air Pollution Is Way Worse Than We Thought.

Wednesday, April 15, 2009

Fields of Fuel? But, biofuels are not enough !!

A new environmental documentary was released at the Sundance Film Festival the "Fields of Fuel". This movie focuses on the importance of the bio-fuels and how they will replace the dependence on oil.

Question: Is Yellow, the new Green?

Some might say that it is, but we should look at both the sides - Energy and Environment. It might reduce our dependence on the oil, on a short term basis, but the interlinkages with the food supply and the environment (air & water pollution), this gets complicated.

According to Mark Jacobson of Standford University, when it comes to energy sustainability, the other alternatives such as solar and wind, rank higher than the biofuels.

Some recent publications and reports on this topic include
The end use benefits of the biofuels are uncharted and the most uncertain. One of the major concerns is the air pollution and the benefits, primarily depend on the life cycle assessments. Farther the transport of the fuel, larger the emission quotient.

Even if the introduction of biofuels reduce the direct emissions from transport, the fugitive emissions such as wind erosion due to deforestation and burning of the landscapes for feedstock cultivation is a very uncertain (and large) source of emissions and growing (FAIR trade report of 2006, "Sustainability of Brazilian Bioethanol", presents an analysis of Amazon forest clearing for sugarcane production).

(click on the image for source and further details)

This clearing of rain forests for biofuels is happening in Brazil, Indonesia, and Malaysia (Fire & Haze - Cost of Catastrophes, Global Palm Oil Demand Fueling Reforestation by WWI, April, 2009), and will probably continue in the other parts of the developing world (The cost of Biofuel boom is destroying the Indonesian forests & Biofuels could fuel rainforest destruction).

Economics favors production of these biofuels, since they are cheaper than petroleum - even though they may be worse for local pollution and climate.

Rural in-situ applications of biofuels have done well.
April, 2009: FAO published a study on the small-scale bioenergy production and rural development.

Enjoy some cartoons on Ethanol.

Sunday, April 12, 2009

Clean Air News - April 12th, 2009

On April 12th, 2009 (News Every Sunday)
See the last issue on April 05, 2009

China Blog, April 6th, 2009
Benefit of Economic Slowdown: Easy Breathing.

Daily Monitor, April 6th, 2009
Biomass energy has a negative impact on women in Uganda.

The Telegraph (India), April 6th, 2009
Foul air hits below the belt in Kolkata, India.

Vietnam News Service, April 5th, 2009
Traffic Jams and Air Pollution Pumps Up Gym Memberships.

Hindustan Times, March 27th, 2009
Taking public transit may help you keep fit.

Science Daily, April 6th, 2009
Breakthrough In Global Warming Plant Production.

The Hearld Bulletin, April 6th, 2009
Everything we do contributes to global warming.

The Examiner, April 6th, 2009
Bright Lights and Green Roofs.

New Richmond News, April 6th, 2009
Portable GPS will help pinpoint asthma triggers.

Sulekha, January 2009
Mumbai Air Pollution, India.

Central Chronicle, April 9th, 2009
Need to Mitigate Climate Change Now.

Public Service News (UK), April 8th, 2009

The financial crisis 'could be a chance for clean transport'.

Vietnam Net, April 8th, 2009
Officials tout Vietnam as potential market for CNG.

Look at Vietnam, April 8th, 2009
Hanoi's Air Getting Fouler too.

Naples News, April 7th, 2009
Asthma Has Become an Explosive Health Problem, Why?

Science Daily, April 8th, 2009
Climate Change To Spur Rapid Shifts In Wildfire Hotspots.

Science Daily, April 9th, 2009
Aerosols May Drive A Significant Portion Of Arctic Warming.

Yale e360, March 2009
Surviving Two Billion Cars: China Must Lead the Way.

China Dialogue, April 7th, 2009
A high cost to Hong Kong.

China Dialogue, April 8th, 2009
Fixing Beijing's Transport Nightmare.

China Daily, April 7th, 2009
Traffic Ban is Quick Fix.

Scholastic, April 9th, 2009
Cars of the Future.

Denver Post, April 10th, 2009
Getting Serious about the Mercury.

All Things Green, April 10th, 2009
Is a Recession Good For the Environment?

Hiffington Post, April 10th, 2009
Climate Change: What Is Equivalent to 'CO2 Equivalents'?

The Guardian, April 9th, 2009
Health risks of shipping pollution have been 'underestimated'.

NPR, April 10th, 2009
China Puts Fizz In Bid To Reduce Carbon Emissions.

The Economist, April 8th, 2009
The Environment - Biofools.

Science Daily, April 10th, 2009
Climate Change And Atmospheric Circulation Will Make For Uneven Ozone Recovery.

Al Ahram (Egypt) News, April 9th, 2009
Justice for the Environment in Cairo.

Thursday, April 09, 2009

Quantifying Air Pollution Removal by Green Roofs (Atmospheric Environment)

This journal article, "Quantifying Air Pollution Removal by Green Roofs in Chicago", in Atmospheric Environment presents an interesting mitigation option.

Reference: Yang et al., Volume 42, Issue 31, October 2008, Pages 7266-7273

Abstract reads..
The level of air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago was quantified using a dry deposition model. The result showed that a total of 1675 kg of air pollutants was removed by 19.8 ha of green roofs in one year with O3 accounting for 52% of the total, NO2 (27%), PM10 (14%), and SO2 (7%). The highest level of air pollution removal occurred in May and the lowest in February. The annual removal per hectare of green roof was 85 kg ha−1 yr−1. The amount of pollutants removed would increase to 2046.89 metric tons if all rooftops in Chicago were covered with intensive green roofs. Although costly, the installation of green roofs could be justified in the long run if the environmental benefits were considered. The green roof can be used to supplement the use of urban trees in air pollution control, especially in situations where land and public funds are not readily available.

Sunday, April 05, 2009

Clean Air News - April 5th, 2009

On April 5th, 2009 (News Every Sunday)
See the last issue on March 29, 2009

Times of India, March 29th, 2009
Cyclists on the Streets Ask for More Space in Mumbai, India.

TIMES Online, March 31st, 2009
Carbon blanket will soon be spread to cover emissions from mainstream industry.

NERI, Denmark, March 30th, 2009
Development of a GIS-based road network and traffic data base.

The National, March 30th, 2009
Something in the Air (Abu Dhabi).

Washington Post, March 30th, 2009
Winds of Change Evident in U.S. Environmental Policy.

ArticleBase, March 7th, 2009
Green Logistics, Urban Air Quality Management And Biofuels Use By Dr. S. K. Modak.

Canada, March 31st, 2009
Sound Road Sweeping Systems In Highly Populated Areas (Toronto).

Times of India, March 31st, 2009
Breathing Trouble from Transport Pollution.

LA Times, March 30th, 2009
US EPA proposes cuts in air pollution from foreign ships.

Science Daily, April 1st, 2009
Carbon Dioxide In Atmosphere Can Now Be Measured From Space.

Globe and Mail, April 1st, 2009
The high cost of blowing smoke on the high seas.

Bioenergy, March 31st, 2009
China Tops UN List of Clean Power Projects.

New Scientist, April 1st, 2009
Device reveals 'sticky' dangers of vehicle pollution.

EEA, April, 2009
Transport at a crossroads. TERM 2008: indicators tracking transport and environment in the European Union.

Grist, March 31st, 2009
Closing the door on building new coal-fired power plants in America.

IRIN, April 3rd, 2009
Air pollution choking Dhaka.

Times of India, April 2nd, 2009
Car emissions worse than other smoke.

Fiji Times, April 3rd, 2009
Fiji - The Air We Breathe.

Nigeria News, April 4th, 2009
BRT intrduction is successful in Lagos, Nigeria.

Thursday, April 02, 2009

Time for Debate over Climate Change is Over - Sir Nicholas Stern

How is it that, in the face of overwhelming scientific evidence, there are still some who would deny the dangers of climate change? In an exclusive extract from his new book, Nicholas Stern argues that the time for debate on climate change is well and truly over.

The basic scientific conclusions on climate change are very robust and for good reason.
  • The greenhouse effect is simple science: greenhouse gases trap heat, and humans are emitting ever more greenhouse gases.
  • There will be oscillations, there will be uncertainties. But the logic of the greenhouse effect is rock-solid and the long-term trends associated with the effects of human emissions are clear in the data.
  • The arguments from those who would deny the science look more and more like those who denied the association between HIV and Aids or smoking and cancer.
  • Science and policy-making thrive on challenge and questioning; they are vital to the health of inquiry and democracy. But at some point it makes sense to move on to the challenge of policymaking, having accepted that the evidence is overwhelming.
Read more @ The Guardian